Health, according to the World Health Organization, is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”.[1] A variety of definitions have been used for different purposes over time. Health can be promoted by encouraging healthful activities, such as regular physical exercise and adequate sleep,[2] and by reducing or avoiding unhealthful activities or situations, such as smoking or excessive stress. Some factors affecting health are due to individual choices, such as whether to engage in a high-risk behavior, while others are due to structural causes, such as whether the society is arranged in a way that makes it easier or harder for people to get necessary healthcare services. Still, other factors are beyond both individual and group choices, such as genetic disorders.

Rashes on the skin

Rashes on the skin can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, irritants, and underlying medical conditions. Some common causes of skin rashes include: Allergic reactions: Allergies to foods, medications, or environmental factors like pollen, pet dander, or insect bites can cause skin rashes. Infections: Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections can all …

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Dyslipidaemia, hyperlipidaemia, ‘bad’ cholesterol, ‘high’ cholesterol and heart attacks – what do they have in common? You often hear saying – “I have high cholesterol”, “they found a lot of cholesterol in me”. But when it comes to cholesterol, it’s the numbers that count – not just the high or low… Dyslipidaemia. Types of cholesterol: …

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Hunger, diet and grelin

Hunger – diet and grelin. What is a grelin? Ghrelin is a hormone discovered in 1999 that is mainly produced and secreted by the stomach, with small amounts also secreted by the small intestine and pancreas. Grelin has many functions. It is known as the “hunger hormone” because it stimulates appetite, increases food intake and …

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Microbiome, microbiota and how microorganisms control…

Microbiome – microbiota and how microorganisms control… The father of microbiology, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who studied a wide range of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, would now be delighted to see advances in microbiological science. A succession of discoveries and research over these decades has proved and reversed the previous notion that micro-organisms exist as single …

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Sore throat? 9 tips to relieve a sore throat. Causes of sore throat

9 tips to relieve a sore throat. The most common causes of sore throats are viruses and bacteria. The viruses can be different – Covid-19, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, varicella, adenoviruses. Bacteria – usually streptococcus. Throat pain is often accompanied by painful swallowing, enlarged and painful lymph nodes in the neck, fever and runny nose. 9 …

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